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shiva Dec 2nd 2008 5:29 pm

The UAE, some history
Documentary on Sheikh Zayed, Abu Dhabi and the UAE in the early days.
(posted before but worth posting again)

Eva Dec 2nd 2008 5:32 pm

Re: The UAE, some history
I love it when you do this Shiva........

shiva Dec 2nd 2008 5:39 pm

Re: The UAE, some history

Originally Posted by Eva (Post 7029889)
I love it when you do this Shiva........

pleasure is all mine, I love this film and figured since it was national day, why not. Will try find something similar for Dubai specifically but it may take some time.

Eva Dec 2nd 2008 5:46 pm

Re: The UAE, some history

Originally Posted by shiva (Post 7029906)
pleasure is all mine, I love this film and figured since it was national day, why not. Will try find something similar for Dubai specifically but it may take some time.

Yeh ..i pinned a tune on our music thread for National Day..............
Try and find that photo of Zayed and him holdin the torch on the falcon...speaks volumes.Remember the one Shiva?

shiva Dec 2nd 2008 5:54 pm

Re: The UAE, some history

Originally Posted by Eva (Post 7029918)
Yeh ..i pinned a tune on our music thread for National Day..............
Try and find that photo of Zayed and him holdin the torch on the falcon...speaks volumes.Remember the one Shiva?

this one?

got it

Eva Dec 2nd 2008 5:59 pm

Re: The UAE, some history

Originally Posted by shiva (Post 7029942)

That speaks volumes .........d'on't it?
Just for as minute-if every one viewing-reflects.....
Different spin.

Eva Dec 2nd 2008 6:29 pm

Re: The UAE, some history
Shiva, you got another one in your collection- Zayed is sitting with other tribesmen.It's gettin dark....he still sits.
Can you find it?
I'll try too.

shiva Dec 2nd 2008 6:44 pm

Re: The UAE, some history
hhmm having issues finding them to be honest and with linking when i do?????

shiva Dec 2nd 2008 6:47 pm

Re: The UAE, some history
potted history of Abu Dhabi

The first reference to Bani Yas dates back to 1633, and is found in a manuscript called "Kashf Al Ghumma Al Jame'i Li Akhbar Al Umma" (A Collected Chronology of Grief in the Nation's Tales) by Omani historian Said Bin Sarhan. The manuscript states that Bani Yas rushed to the assistance of the Al Dhahira people in their struggle to drive the Portuguese out of the Gulphar Fortress, north of Ras Al Khaimah.

The Bani Yas Alliance represented the land force in the area under the leadership of Al Bu Falah. The name "Bani Yas Alliance" was given to the tribal assemblage that formed this alliance. It consisted of a group of tribes under the leadership of Al Bu Falah, from whom the Al Nahyan family, who reigned for more than two hundred years, is descended.

As mentioned by the sources, one of the main divisions in the Bani Yas Alliance was Al Bu Falasah, from whom the rulers of the Dubai Emirate are descended; the Qubeissat who dwelled in Liwa in the middle of Al Dhafra territory; and the Suwaidis, most of who have lived in the Bateen area. There are other sub-groups of Bani Yas such as Mazaar'i, Al Bu Mihiar, Hawamil, Marrs, Rumeithat, Maharba, Qamzan, Sabais, Al Busair, ar-Rawashid and Mushaqibin.

There were also small groups that were subordinated to the Bani Yas such as Al Bu Ameen, Al Eireifat, Al Dhuhailat and others, in addition to sub-groups of some other tribes that lived under the aegis of the Al Nahyan.

It could be said that: "The coherence of this Alliance and the strong ties between its members made this Alliance acquire the term "tribe", since the seventeenth century, as historic sources and references refer to Bani Yas Tribe."

The Al Nahyan "Family" In Abu Dhabi

It is a pleasure and delight to see Abu Dhabi gain such prominence in the modern age, and to introduce men whose names have been brightly etched in the annals of history.

Al Nahyan rulers have measured up to the task, and have reigned with prudence and wisdom. As a result, the country has lived in unprecedented peace, security, and stability. It could not be otherwise in the prevailing atmosphere of boundless generosity, unlimited loyalty and justice, like a fountain of light and a beacon of peace and prosperity. The Al Nahyan rulers have been great leaders, responsible, devoted and focused on nation building.

Towards the end of the 18th century, Sheikh Eissa Bin Nahyan managed to assemble all the Bani Yas under his banner. Thus, he is considered as the first ruler from the Al Nahyan. Sheikh Dhiab Bin Eissa laid the foundation for the coastal area in Abu Dhabi and chose Sahl Al Hamrah, north of Al Dhafra Land, as his place of residence. In spite of his short reign, justice became widespread and he ruled with wisdom and prudence, creating stability and peace.

Sheikh Shakhbout Bin Dhiab took over the leadership of Al Bu Falah during the period between 1793 and 1816, after the death of Dhiab Bin Eissa. He was well known for his broadmindedness, keen perception and thorough analysis.

Under his rule, the Al Bu Falah leadership of the Bani Yas was established. He engaged in battles to defend Oman from foreign invaders and associated with the Rulers of Muscat, Al Bu Saeed. This paved the way for the creation of the spirit of solidarity and respect between the Al Nahyan Rulers and the Al Bu Saeed Rulers.

Sheikh Shakhbout Bin Dhiab will be remembered for taking a daring step, which had a great and far-reaching political and economic impact on the life of the Abu Dhabi Emirate. He shifted his headquarters from Liwa, located in the interior, to the town which was coming into being on Abu Dhabi Island, and encouraged trade, pearl diving, hunting and navigation.

Tahnoun Bin Shakhbout succeeded Sheikh Shakhbout Bin Dhiab. He was distinguished by his devotion to work, his dynamism and vitality. Under his rule (1818-1833) Abu Dhabi, supported by Bani Yas, grew into a power to be reckoned with on the Oman Coast, thanks to his wise policy, armory and great warriors.

When Sheikh Khalifa Bin Shakhbout took over the reign after his brother Tahnoun, Abu Dhabi was already a great political and military power in the southeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Sheikh Khalifa Bin Shakhbout's reign lasted from 1833 to 1845. Abu Dhabi experienced times of turmoil because of the conflict between Sheikh Khalifa and his brother, Sultan, who shared the power with him for some time. But later Sheikh Khalifa ruled alone. At that time the Al Bu Falasah seceded from the Bani Yas and established their own authority in Dubai.

Sheikh Khalifa remained in power until it was taken over by Sheikh Saeed Bin Tahnoun who ruled from 1845 to 1855. All those years Abu Dhabi was exposed to many foreign dangers. However, Sheikh Saeed, with his strong will and love for his country, defended it, and with his prudence and wisdom managed to attract, among others, the Al Dhawaher and the Al Naeem tribes to his side.

Zayed The First (Senior)

Zayed the First, who was called شthe Senior', ruled Abu Dhabi Emirate from 1855 and remained in power until 1909. He ruled and managed with prudence, and endeavored to develop the country through uniting the tribes in the Emirate and marrying from the tribes inhabiting the Oman Coast.

Sheikh Zayed Bin Khalifa was a very practical and perceptive man. He was fully supported by all the tribes. He had eight sons who played significant roles in their fatherصs life. Those were Khalifa, Tahnoun, Saeed, Hamdan, Hazaa, Sultan, Saqer and Mohammed.

Zayed the Senior believed in consultation, and overcame many obstacles through the friendly relations that he established with the Bani Yas and the Qawassim, and through his cooperation with the Al Maktoum in Dubai. He also established his authority in Buraimi.

Mr. Hamdi Tammam, author of the book Zayed, The Leader and the March says: "The efforts of Sheikh Zayed Bin Khalifa Al Nahyan were not just limited to the political and economic development of the society; those efforts also brought about great development in the intellectual and cultural spheres. This was evident in the heritage of many scholars and men of letters who emerged in the Emirate society during his rule.

"When Sheikh Zayed Bin Khalifa died, the majlis of the Al Nahyan family met and agreed that the late Zayed should be succeeded by his eldest son Sheikh Khalifa who was known for his strong personality and intelligence. However, Sheikh Khalifa thanked the family members but refused to succeed his father. So Sheikh Tahnoun, the second eldest son of Sheikh Zayed the First was chosen as ruler. Sheikh Tahnoun ruled for three years from 1909 to 1912. During his rule, the Abu Dhabi Emirate witnessed great economic welfare and prosperity, commercial activity and large-scale development in the fields of fishing and pearl diving.

Following the death of Sheikh Tahnoun Bin Zayed, Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed was again offered to take over, but he refused. His brother Hamdan took over in 1912 and ruled for a full decade during which the country was very peaceful and stable. The pearl industry flourished. Tolerance prevailed throughout the state as Sheikh Hamdan was a very generous man, and thus all the tribes were positively disposed towards him, both during and after his rule.

In 1922, Sheikh Sultan Bin Zayed took over the rule and remained in power for five years until 1926. He was a very brave and wise ruler. He established good relations with his neighbors, the Princes of the Coast of Oman. Sheikh Sultan gave special care to agriculture and irrigation. He ordered the drilling of the Al Muwaiji Falaj, which resulted in the flourishing of Al Muwaiji village, and built a palace in the eastern part of Al Ain that can still be seen today. In August 1926, Sheikh Saqer Bin Zayed took over. As he ruled for a short time, his achievements did not come to the foreground.

Sheikh Shakhbout then took over the rule in the Emirate (Abu Dhabi) for thirty-eight years. He was one of the grandsons of Sheikh Zayed the Senior. The Al Nahyan family pledged allegiance to him, following the directions given by Sheikha Salama Bint Butti, mother of Sheikh Shakhbout. He paid special attention to the basic elements of life, in particular the aspect of drinking water. During his rule the first drinking water pipeline was extended from Al Sad area, near Al Ain city, to Abu Dhabi.

On August 6, 1966, H.H. Sheikh Shakhbout transferred the rule to his brother H.H. Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan. This heralded the beginning of a bright new era of bounty during which Abu Dhabi has experienced progress, increased welfare, prosperity and justice - an era of abundance that, we pray to God, will ever remain so.

A Chronicle of Al Nahyan Rulers in Power:

1. Eissa Bin Nahyan (18th Century)

2. Dhiab Bin Eissa (18th Century)

3. Shakhbout Bin Dhiab (1793 - 1816)

4. Mohammed Bin Shakhbout (1816-1818)

5. Tahnoon Bin Shakhbout (1818-1833)

6. Khalifa Bin Shakhbout (1833-1845)

7. Saeed Bin Tahnoun (1845- 1855)

8. Zayed Bin Khalifa (1855 - 1909)

9. Tahnoun Bin Zayed (1909 - 1912)

10. Hamdan Bin Zayed (1912 - 1922)

11. Sultan Bin Zayed (1922 - 1926)

12. Saqer Bin Zayed (1926 - 1928)

13. Shakhbout Bin Sultan (1928 - 1966)

14. Zayed Bin Sultan (1966 - to date)

Why was it called Abu Dhabi?

A report by the Indian Government, written in 1831, refers to an incident when one of the Al Bu Falah men discovered a water well for the first time on Abu Dhabi Island in 1761, which prompted some of the Bani Yas members to migrate and settle on the island.

Different stories are told about the name "Abu Dhabi" One of these stories recounts that the island was given that name because there were plenty of deer living in the area. Another story claims that a hunter caught a deer after a persistent chase. Both died of thirst near a dry well, which was then given the name "Abu Dhabi" Since then the island has been known by that name and later the whole Emirate. Some people say that the name was "Umm Dhabi" in the beginning and was changed afterwards to "Abu Dhabi"

Until oil was discovered, extracted and exported, pearl diving and fishing were the principal occupations of Abu Dhabi people. Contemporaries of that period say that Bani Yas and its numerous affiliate tribes in Abu Dhabi, as well as 70 percent of the Al Ain population lived from diving and the pearl trade. The diving season was between June and October. When the diving season ended, the men would join their families and go out hunting in the rainy and green seasons or go fishing.

The Abu Dhabi population was divided into the tribes (or sub-tribal groups) of the Bani Yas in adjacent localities (Ferjan). East of the present Central Market, the area was occupied by the Rumeithis and Qubaissis. The Otaibas and Yamounahs were in ar-Ras. West of old Al Hisn (Fortress) were the Qamzis, Hamdans, Hawmails, Mazrouies and Mohairba. Bateen was occupied by the Suwaidis and Muheirys. The main port of Abu Dhabi (or Qutaa) was located opposite to the present Clock Tower Roundabout on the Corniche road and had no docks.

There was also زAl Bandarس another port at the present location of Mina Zayed, and a third port at Mina Al Bateen. Types of dwellings:

Traderصs dwellings were made of gravel and plaster, comprising stores and living rooms (majlis). But, the majority used to live in dwellings made of palm leaves, or in tents made of palm leaves and palm trunks.

shiva Dec 2nd 2008 7:12 pm

Re: The UAE, some history
on a role now.
Here is an interpretation and opinion on Abu Dhabi's intricate internal power structure

"Right up to the announcement of Zayed's death, even those locals and veteran expatriates who considered themselves among the best informed had got it all wrong. Indeed, with the exception of just one publication, almost all had predicted the succession of Zayed's astute, dynamic and highly visible third-eldest son, Muhammad. Only one year previously, Muhammad had been appointed by his father to the all-new position of deputy crown prince, a move interpreted by some as deliberately smoothing the way for the succession. However, in accordance with primogeniture, the eldest of Zayed's sons and Abu Dhabi's crown prince since 1966, Khalifa, was quietly proclaimed the new ruler.

Khalifa got no full brothers. A bloc of six of Zayed's other sons are, however, full brothers, and most significantly their mother, Shaikha Fatima bint Mubarak al-Qitbi, was Zayed's favored wife and continues to be regarded as the UAE's "First Lady." Predictably, as something approaching a cohesive political bloc in an otherwise highly fragmented dynasty, they have collectively grown in power as they have grown older.
Partly due to their Western education, they are thought to have much in common with emerging technocratic elements in the Council of Ministers and the Federal National Council. Crucially, they have between them gained important control over foreign affairs and parts of the military, domestic intelligence, information services, and other institutions closely connected to national security.
The eldest of these Bani Fatima is the crown prince Muhammad.

To contain the power of the Bani Fatima President Sheikh Khalifa got support from a more splintered fraction that often are referred to as the Bani Muhammad bin Khalifa, they where the main powerbrokers during the late Emirs reign and with him basically built the UAE from scratch.
Indeed, of the late Khalifa's six grandsons, all assumed important positions of power during the early years of Zayed's administration. The eldest of these, Hamdan, was one of the most vociferous supporters of Zayed's cause in 1966 and was at one point even considered as a potential crown prince should anything happen to Zayed's sons. He was the first chairman of Abu Dhabi's new Public Works Department and then became the UAE's deputy prime minister for much of the 1970s and the early 1980s. The second eldest grandson, Mubarak, served as Abu Dhabi's chief of police during the critical first few years of Zayed's rule and was later rewarded with control over the Ministry of the Interior. Tahnun, the third of the Bani Muhammad bin Khalifa, has for some years been a member of the Supreme Petroleum Council and a former director of the Abu Dhabi National oil Company (ADNOC), in addition to holding the deputy chairmanship of the Abu Dhabi Executive Council (Abu Dhabi's emirate-level cabinet). Perhaps most significantly, Tahnun remains the governor of Abu Dhabi's eastern region, which includes the enormous responsibility of governing the emirate's second largest city, Al-Ayn.
Notable among the other grandsons have been Saif, who was chairman of the Abu Dhabi Planning Department and the UAE's minister of health for much of the 1970s, and Surur who was the original chairman of Abu Dhabi's Department of Justice, the chamberlain of the Presidential Court for a long period, the chairman of the Abu Dhabi Department of Water and Electricity, and at one point also the chairman of the UAE Central Bank.

Today, many of these grandsons remain influential, and many of their own sons have formed the latest generation of the loyal Bani Muhammad bin Khalifa. In particular, Hamdan's son Khalifa is the chairman of Abu Dhabi's Department of Economy, while his other sons include Hamad, a successful businessman with the nickname "The Rainbow Shaikh' given his fleet of multicolored cars, and Sultan, chairman of Protocol and the Presidential Guest House. Mubarak's eldest surviving son, Nuhayyan, is minister of education and the president of Zayed University, with his other son, Hamdan, serving as the chairman of Abu Dhabi's Civil Aviation Department (and at one point being the chairman of Gulf Air). Similarly prominent are Tahnun's sons, who between them hold positions on the Abu Dhabi Executive Council, the chairmanship of the powerful General Industry Corporation (essentially a government parastatal),

Despite their ongoing influence however, they and their sons are nowhere nearly as powerful as they were in Zayed's early years. For example, Hamdan bin Muhammad's position of deputy prime minister has been lost to Hamdan bin Zayed, while Surur bin Muhammad's chairmanship of the UAE Central Bank has also been lost (remarkable, given that many believed Surur could have become Khalifa's new crown prince following Zayed's death77). Similarly the Bani Muhammad bin Khalifa have lost the directorship of ADNOC, the chamberlainship of the Presidential Court, and indeed almost all of the ministerial portfolios that they held during the 1970s and 1980s. Clearly, they have been squeezed, mainly by the rising Bani Fatima, and, although there has been some intermarriage between the two blocs, they remain a completely distinct faction. Crucially, of Zayed's sons, they have always been closer to Khalifa, as he is, of course, not a part of the Bani Fatima and therefore regarded as the best potential balancing force. In addition, Khalifa's mother, Shaikha Hussa, was a sister of the Bani Muhammad bin Khalifa, and most of Khalifa's daughters have been married into this branch, further reinforcing any future Khalifa-Bani Muhammad bin Khalifa link.

So as you can imagine HH Sheik Khalifa is by no means a figurehead, it´s just that there are two main blocks of power so his powers are limited in certain areas."
taken from here

Bani Fatima loyals
Sheikh Muhammad. crown prince and very much the architect behind the modernisation of Abu Dhabi. He´s still very much considered the military leader of UAE.

Sheikh Hamdan, deputy prime minister.

Sheikh Hazza, heads the security and intelligence services. Not a man to cross..

Sheikh Tahnoun, heads the presidents private department.

Sheikh Mansour, minister of presidential affairs (The Royal chamberlain really)

Sheikh Abdullah, minister of foreign affairs

soukie Dec 2nd 2008 8:09 pm

Re: The UAE, some history
Thanks Shiva :thumbsup:- really interesting info and great video footage.

Blue Cat Dec 3rd 2008 9:42 am

Re: The UAE, some history
excellent Shiva :thumbup:

Eva Dec 3rd 2008 3:05 pm

Re: The UAE, some history
This is just great reading -thanx Shiva.
This is yourt other thread you put up not so long ago.The photo I referred to??? is just a red cross now:( anyways for sure the Codrai's are worth looking at again.

You should ask the Mods to pin your thread Shiva-its really invaluable reading for anyone genuinely interested in UAE.

Thanx again

Madam Medusa Dec 3rd 2008 4:15 pm

Re: The UAE, some history

Originally Posted by Eva (Post 7033323)
You should ask the Mods to pin your thread Shiva-its really invaluable reading for anyone genuinely interested in UAE.

yeah, i agree, it's not often you get any history here, and this is fabulous stuff...

MM, xx

Eva Dec 3rd 2008 4:35 pm

Re: The UAE, some history

Originally Posted by Madam Medusa (Post 7033504)
yeah, i agree, it's not often you get any history here, and this is fabulous stuff...

MM, xx

Oh I love it. Just watching it again-finished 5/6 of Youtube Videos wherein you actually hear Zayed's voice-great. Hahahahha- thekids at school too learning English rote fashion 'this is the floor,this is the sweet and it looks like 'Little Richard' is their teacher.
Seeing Zayed sit with his people 'at a table' and not on the floor- and the
gauche way he is managing his cutlery-trying to learn how to use it, all fascinating.I had to laugh though about the hospital scene in this particular video-not at the poor folks and their afflictions(eye disease off the richter scale-is that becos of sand/dust I wonder?) but the number of injuries sustained falling out of date trees!!!!!
Guess nowadays.......for date trees read Land Cruisers.....
Amazing stuff though.

shiva Dec 3rd 2008 5:18 pm

Re: The UAE, some history
Thx folks. Will try to find some history for each of the Emirates and add it to this thread as well. We all too often complain of the lack of history and culture here, which just isnt the case in reality. Its just that its not easily accessible.

shiva Dec 3rd 2008 5:37 pm

Re: The UAE, some history
Zayed speaking

Autonomy Dec 3rd 2008 5:56 pm

Re: The UAE, some history

Originally Posted by shiva (Post 7033697)
Thx folks. Will try to find some history for each of the Emirates and add it to this thread as well. We all too often complain of the lack of history and culture here, which just isnt the case in reality. Its just that its not easily accessible.

Great thread and great sentiment.

Sticky - hope this thread grows with great history on Dubai and the UAE.

I'm aware this is the ME Forum, however this is relevant and worth preserving for many forum users...

Thanks Shiva, nice work....

shiva Dec 3rd 2008 6:22 pm

Re: The UAE, some history
Thx, since its of interest I may add another thread on other ME countries....let me get done with the UAE first though!

shiva Dec 4th 2008 6:56 am

Re: The UAE, some history
ADMA-OPCO Oil Company History

Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company (ADMA-OPCO) operates all Abu Dhabi offshore oil production

shiva Dec 4th 2008 7:02 am

Re: The UAE, some history
Documentray/Company presentation on the histroy of the Al Fahim Group, one of Abu Dhabi's biggest and most powerful local groups, with some local histroy thrown in.

The book "rags to riches: a story of Abu Dhabi" by Mohammed Abdul Jalil Al Fahim details both the Al Fahim Groups story and some of the history of Abu Dhabi and is well worth a read.

shiva Dec 4th 2008 7:08 am

Re: The UAE, some history
Documentray on Abu Dhabi. Its a little cheesy and dated but there is some incredible early footage of Abu Dhabi in this film. I suspect this is one of the oil company sponsored documentary/adverts that was sponsored in the 70's and 80's. Nonetheless definately worth watching.

Abu Dhabi: The Beginning - Part 1

Abu Dhabi: The Beginning - Part 2

Abu Dhabi: The Beginning - Part 3

shiva Dec 4th 2008 7:15 am

Re: The UAE, some history
Incredible old footage, circa late 50's of Abu Dhabi.

Harbour Life in the UAE. 1957

Pearl fishers of Abu Dhabi in 1957

Das Island 1957

shiva Dec 4th 2008 7:19 am

Re: The UAE, some history
Quick version of Abu Dhabi history

"Parts of Abu Dhabi were settled in the 3rd millennium BC and its early history fits the nomadic herding and fishing pattern typical of the broader region. Modern Abu Dhabi traces its origins to the rise of an important tribal confederation, the Bani Yas, in the late 18th century, which also subsequently assumed control of the town of Dubai. In the 19th century the Dubai and Abu Dhabi branches parted ways.

Into the mid-20th century, the economy of Abu Dhabi continued to be sustained mainly by camel herding, production of dates and vegetables at the inland oases of Al Ain and Liwa Oasis, and fishing and pearl diving off the coast of Abu Dhabi city, which was occupied mainly during the summer months. Most dwellings in Abu Dhabi city were, at this time constructed of palm fronds (barasti), with the wealthier families occupying mud huts. The growth of the cultured pearl industry in the first half of the twentieth century created hardship for residents of Abu Dhabi as pearls represented the largest export and main source of cash earnings.

In 1939, Sheikh Shakhbut Bin-Sultan Al Nahyan granted petroleum concessions, and oil was first found in 1958. At first, oil money had a marginal impact. A few lowrise concrete buildings were erected, and the first paved road was completed in 1961, but Sheikh Shakbut, uncertain whether the new oil royalties would last, took a cautious approach, preferring to save the revenue rather than investing it in development. His brother, Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, saw that oil wealth had the potential to transform Abu Dhabi. The ruling Al Nahyan family decided that Sheikh Zayed should replace his brother as ruler and carry out his vision of developing the country. On August 6, 1966, with the assistance of the British, Sheikh Zayed became the new ruler. [3]

With the announcement by the UK in 1968 that it would withdraw from the Persian Gulf area by 1971, Sheikh Zayed became the main driving force behind the formation of the United Arab Emirates.

After the Emirates gained independence in 1971, oil wealth continued to flow to the area and traditional mud-brick huts were rapidly replaced with banks, boutiques and modern highrises."


shiva Dec 4th 2008 7:35 am

Re: The UAE, some history
The UAE a Potted History

"The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven states situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman and Saudi Arabia. The seven states, termed emirates, are Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm al-Quwain."

"The United Arab Emirates was originally formed from tribally-organized Arabian Peninsula sheikhdoms along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf and the northwestern coast of the Gulf of Oman. It had been part of Oman and was then called Oman's Gulf. The UAE was only established thirty seven years ago; the emirates bonded together and became one united country, which has evolved into a modern, high-income nation.

Portuguese expansion into the Indian Ocean in the early sixteenth century following Vasco da Gama's route of exploration saw them battle the Ottomans up the coast of the Persian Gulf. The Portuguese controlled the area for 150 years in which they conquered the inhabitants of the Arabian peninsula. It is noteworthy to mention that Vasco da Gama was helped by Ibn Majid, an Arab from Julphar (now known as Ras Al Khaimah, one of the UAE emirates), to find the route of spices.

British & Ottomans
Then, portions of the nation came under the direct influence of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th century. Thereafter the region was known to the British as the "Pirate Coast", as raiders based there harassed the shipping industry despite both European and Arab navies patrolling the area from the 17th century into the 19th century. British expeditions to protect the Indian trade from raiders at Ras al-Khaimah led to campaigns against that headquarters and other harbours along the coast in 1819. The next year, a peace treaty was signed to which all the sheikhs of the coast adhered. Raids continued intermittently until 1835, when the sheikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. In 1853, they signed a treaty with the United Kingdom, under which the sheikhs (the "Trucial Sheikhdoms") agreed to a "perpetual maritime truce." It was enforced by the United Kingdom, and disputes among sheikhs were referred to the British for settlement.
Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the United Kingdom and the Trucial Sheikhdoms established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty, similar to treaties entered into by the UK with other Persian Gulf principalities. The sheikhs agreed not to dispose of any territory except to the United Kingdom and not to enter into relationships with any foreign government other than the United Kingdom without its consent. In return, the British promised to protect the Trucial Coast from all aggression by sea and to help in case of land attack.

In 1955, the United Kingdom sided with Abu Dhabi in the latter's dispute with Oman over the Buraimi Oasis another territory to the south. A 1974 agreement between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia would have settled the Abu Dhabi-Saudi border dispute; however, the agreement has yet to be ratified by the UAE government and is not recognised by the Saudi government. The border with Oman also remains officially unsettled, but the two governments agreed to delineate the border in May 1999.

Sheikh Zayed, Oil & the Union
In the early 1960s, oil was discovered in Abu Dhabi, an event that led to quick unification calls made by UAE sheikdoms. Shaikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan became ruler of Abu Dhabi in 1967 and the British started losing their oil investments and contracts to U.S. oil companies.

Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan.The British had earlier started a development office that helped in some small developments in the Emirates. The sheikhs of the Emirates then decided to form a council to coordinate matters between them and took over the development office. They formed the Trucial States Council and appointed Adi Bitar, Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum's legal advisor, as Secretary General and Legal Advisor to the Council. The Council was terminated once the United Arab Emirates was formed.

In 1968, the United Kingdom announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationships with the seven Trucial Sheikhdoms which had been, together with Bahrain and Qatar, under British protection. The nine attempted to form a union of Arab Emirates, but by mid-1971 they were still unable to agree on terms of union, even though the British treaty relationship was to expire in December of that year.

Bahrain became independent in August and Qatar in September 1971. When the British-Trucial Shaikhdoms treaty expired on December 1, 1971, they became fully independent.

The rulers of Abu Dhabi and Dubai decided to form a union between their two emirates independently, prepare a constitution, then call the rulers of the other five emirates to a meeting and offer them the opportunity to join. It was also agreed between the two that Adi Bitar write the constitution by December 2, 1971.

On that date, at the Dubai Guesthouse Palace, four other emirates agreed to enter into a union called the United Arab Emirates. Ras al-Khaimah joined later, in early 1972.

The UAE sent forces into Kuwait during the 1990–91 Gulf War.

The UAE supports military operations from the United States and other Coalition nations that are engaged in the invasions of Iraq (2003) and Afghanistan (2001) as well as Operations supporting the Global War on Terrorism for the Horn of Africa at the Al Dhafra Air Base located outside of Abu Dhabi. The air base also supported Allied operations during the 1991 Persian Gulf War and Operation Northern Watch.

On November 2, 2004, the UAE's first president, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, died. His eldest son, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, succeeded as ruler of Abu Dhabi. In accordance with the constitution, the UAE's Supreme Council of Rulers elected Khalifa as president. Mohammad bin Zayed Al Nahyan succeeded Khalifa as Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi"


See Also:

Abu Dhabi
Umm al-Quwain
Ras al-Khaimah

shiva Dec 4th 2008 8:00 am

Re: The UAE, some history
Dubai History: a quick guide

" Very little is known about pre-Islamic culture in the south-east Arabian peninsula, except that many ancient towns in the area were trading centers between the Eastern and Western worlds. The remnants of an ancient mangrove swamp, dated at 7,000 years, were discovered during the construction of sewer lines near Dubai Internet City. The area had been covered with sand about 5,000 years ago as the coastline retreated inland, becoming a part of the city's present coastline. Prior to Islam, the people in this region worshiped Bajir (or Bajar). The Byzantine and Sassanian empires constituted the great powers of the period, with the Sassanians controlling much of the region. After the spread of Islam in the region, the Umayyad Caliph, of the eastern Islamic world, invaded south-east Arabia and drove out the Sassanians. Excavations undertaken by the Dubai Museum in the region of Al-Jumayra (Jumeirah) indicate the existence of several artifacts from the Umayyad period. The earliest recorded mention of Dubai is in 1095, in the "Book of Geography" by the Andalusian-Arab geographer Abu Abdullah al-Bakri. The Venetian pearl merchant Gaspero Balbi visited the area in 1580 and mentioned Dubai (Dibei) for its pearling industry. Documented records of the town of Dubai exist only after 1799.

In the early 19th century, the Al Abu Falasa clan (House of Al-Falasi) of Bani Yas clan established Dubai, which remained a dependent of Abu Dhabi until 1833. On 8 January 1820, the sheikh of Dubai and other sheikhs in the region signed the "General Maritime Peace Treaty" with the British government. However, in 1833, the Al Maktoum dynasty (also descendants of the House of Al-Falasi) of the Bani Yas tribe left the settlement of Abu Dhabi and took over Dubai from the Abu Fasala clan without resistance. Dubai came under the protection of the United Kingdom by the "Exclusive Agreement" of 1892, with the latter agreeing to protect Dubai against any attacks from the Ottoman Empire. Two catastrophes struck the town during the mid 1800s. First, in 1841, a smallpox epidemic broke out in the Bur Dubai locality, forcing residents to relocate east to Deira. Then, in 1894, fire swept through Deira, burning down most homes. However, the town's geographical location continued to attract traders and merchants from around the region. The emir of Dubai was keen to attract foreign traders and lowered trade tax brackets, which lured traders away from Sharjah and Bandar Lengeh, which were the region's main trade hubs at the time.

Al Fahidi Fort, built in 1799, is the oldest existing building in Dubai. Dubai's geographical proximity to India made it an important location. The town of Dubai was an important port of call for foreign tradesmen, chiefly those from India, many of whom eventually settled in the town. Dubai was known for its pearl exports until the 1930s. However, Dubai's pearling industry was damaged irreparably by the events of World War I, and later on by the Great Depression in the late 1920s. Consequently, the city witnessed a mass migration of people to other parts of the Persian Gulf. Since its inception, Dubai was constantly at odds with Abu Dhabi. In 1947, a border dispute between Dubai and Abu Dhabi on the northern sector of their mutual border, escalated into war between the two states. Arbitration by the British and the creation of a buffer frontier running south eastwards from the coast at Ras Hasian resulted in a temporary cessation of hostilities. However, border disputes between the emirates continued even after the formation of the UAE; it was only in 1979 that a formal compromise was reached that ended hostilities and border disputes between the two states. Electricity, telephone services and an airport were established in Dubai in the 1950s, when the British moved their local administrative offices from Sharjah to Dubai. In 1966 the town joined the newly independent country of Qatar to set up a new monetary unit, the Qatar/Dubai Riyal, after the deflation of the Gulf rupee. Oil was discovered in Dubai the same year, after which the town granted concessions to international oil companies. The discovery of oil led to a massive influx of foreign workers, mainly Indians and Pakistanis. As a result, the population of the city from 1968 to 1975 grew by over 300%, by some estimates.

On 2 December 1971 Dubai, together with Abu Dhabi and five other emirates, formed the United Arab Emirates after former protector Britain left the Persian Gulf in 1971. In 1973, Dubai joined the other emirates to adopt a uniform currency: the UAE dirham. In the 1970s, Dubai continued to grow from revenues generated from oil and trade, even as the city saw an influx of Lebanese immigrants fleeing the civil war in Lebanon. The Jebel Ali Free Zone, comprising the Jebel Ali port (reputedly the world's largest man made port) was established in 1979, which provided foreign companies unrestricted import of labour and export capital.

The Persian Gulf War of 1990 had a huge impact on the city. Economically, Dubai banks experienced a massive withdrawal of funds due to uncertain political conditions in the region. During the course of the 1990s, however, many foreign trading communities — first from Kuwait, during the Persian Gulf War, and later from Bahrain, during the Shia unrest, moved their businesses to Dubai. Dubai provided refueling bases to allied forces at the Jebel Ali free zone during the Persian Gulf war, and again, during the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. Large increases in oil prices after the Persian Gulf war encouraged Dubai to continue to focus on free trade and tourism. The success of the Jebel Ali free zone allowed the city to replicate its model to develop clusters of new free zones, including Dubai Internet City, Dubai Media City and Dubai Maritime City. The construction of Burj Al Arab, the world's tallest freestanding hotel, as well as the creation of new residential developments, were used to market Dubai for purposes of tourism. Since 2002, the city has seen an increase in private real estate investment in recreating Dubai's skyline with such projects as The Palm Islands, The World Islands and Burj Dubai. However, robust economic growth in recent years has been accompanied by rising inflation rates (at 11.2% as of 2007 when measured against Consumer Price Index) which is attributed in part due to the near doubling of commercial and residential rental costs, resulting in a substantial increase in the cost of living for residents."

See also:

Pictures of Dubai

Sheikh Zayed Road taken in 1990

Sheikh Zayed Road taken in 2004

Clock Tower roundabout: Before circa 70's?

Clock Tower roundabout circa early 2000's

Map of Dubai in 1822
from here:

Jumeira Beach Road

Beach Road

Creek circa 60's

Pictures and stories of Dubai through time can be found here:

and here:

Old Abu Dhabi:

shiva Dec 4th 2008 8:02 am

Re: The UAE, some history
Dubai Airport 60's

Etisalat the early days
all taken from here:

shiva Dec 4th 2008 8:21 am

Re: The UAE, some history
UAE links

some links for further info

Emirates Natural History Group:
incredible resource for information on the UAE's natural history with a phenominal online archive of articles on everything from archaeology and fossils to plant life and geology

Natural Emirates:
guide to flora and fauna

UAE Interact:
historical guide, from prehistory on

has some great local interest stuff on all subjects

Abu Dhabi Islands Archaeological Survey (ADIAS):
incredible resource for archaeology in the UAE, some really stunning stuff and right at the cutting edge of knowledge about early man in the Middle East. now been merged into
Abu Dhabi Authority for Culture and Heritage:

Sharjah Museums Department:
Sharjah now has some of the best museums in the Middle East

shiva Dec 4th 2008 8:30 am

Re: The UAE, some history
General Middle East info, news, history.
One of the best web resources for the region is the online version of the publication "Saudi Aramco World", they have been published since 1949 and contain some excellent information and stories on the region
Saudi Aramco World", :
back issues:
subject index: (would take years to work through all of this)

shiva Dec 13th 2008 4:33 pm

Re: The UAE, some history
Ras Al Khaimah Museum
Well worth visiting, ok the place is falling apart but to their credit they are renovating it. Fantastic collection with some real eye openers from roman amphora and ancient Iraqi glass to chinese plates

Factoid: RAK is the birthplace of Ibn Majid the famed Arab navigator whom Vasco De Gamma and the portugese used to forge a route to India, without whom there wouldnt have been Goa etc and spices in Europe would have remained the preserve of the elite and super rich. He is also claimed to have invented the Magnetic compass again without which......

If you decided to visit make sure you drive past the museum along towards the beach and fishing village as most of the buildings in the area are now preserved as archaeological sites, a great glimps into the past.

shiva May 12th 2009 7:48 pm

Re: The UAE, some history
Time for a quick update.

for more info on the UAE see the below linked google books

The United Arab Emirates: a venture in unity
By Malcolm C. Peck

Folklore and folklife in the United Arab Emirates
By Sayed Hamid A. Hurreiz

United Arab Emirates, a new perspective
By Ibrahim Abed, Peter Hellyer

Eva Nov 28th 2009 7:34 pm

Re: The UAE, some history
This is nice and a quick guide to who's who....
If it's been posted before then apologies.

Slingshot Nov 30th 2009 6:24 am

Re: The UAE, some history

Originally Posted by Eva (Post 8131626)
This is nice and a quick guide to who's who....
If it's been posted before then apologies.

Thanks for the link Eva. - some nice shots there.
I was driving through AD recently and along the side of the road there was a royal and some of his aids with their falcons. I stopped and chatted to them and took photos which they loved so much they want a CD of them!

commander Nov 30th 2009 11:37 am

Re: The UAE, some history

Originally Posted by Slingshot (Post 8134639)
Thanks for the link Eva. - some nice shots there.
I was driving through AD recently and along the side of the road there was a royal and some of his aids with their falcons. I stopped and chatted to them and took photos which they loved so much they want a CD of them!

cool!! that must have been brilliant.

Slingshot Nov 30th 2009 12:10 pm

Re: The UAE, some history

Originally Posted by commander (Post 8135340)
cool!! that must have been brilliant.

a very surreal moment!

Eva Nov 30th 2009 7:29 pm

Re: The UAE, some history

Originally Posted by Slingshot (Post 8134639)
Thanks for the link Eva. - some nice shots there.
I was driving through AD recently and along the side of the road there was a royal and some of his aids with their falcons. I stopped and chatted to them and took photos which they loved so much they want a CD of them!

Well, come us a few.Ooooh must have been quite exciting-how top tier?

Slingshot Dec 1st 2009 10:42 am

Re: The UAE, some history

Originally Posted by Eva (Post 8136343)
Well, come us a few.Ooooh must have been quite exciting-how top tier?

the top
can't put them on here but if you send me your email address I can send you a few

Eva Dec 2nd 2009 6:02 pm

Re: The UAE, some history

Originally Posted by Slingshot (Post 8138217)
the top
can't put them on here but if you send me your email address I can send you a few

I know you can't, just pulling your leg.
PM sent.

Blue Cat Mar 8th 2010 3:22 am

Re: The UAE, some history!/...7772310&ref=ts

Dubai, the good old days facebook group, some good pics there :thumbup:

Shery Mar 10th 2010 9:42 am

Re: The UAE, some history

Originally Posted by shiva (Post 7029882)
Documentary on Sheikh Zayed, Abu Dhabi and the UAE in the early days.
(posted before but worth posting again)

Amazing Shiva!! great job :)

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